Below is a summary for the TRIO gene observed in research publications. This is not meant to take the place of medical advice.

Click here for our full TRIO Gene Guide

The online Gene Guide includes more information about TRIO such as the chance of having another child with this condition, behavior and development concerns linked to TRIO-related syndrome or specialists to consider for people with this condition. Share this resource with family members or your clinical providers.


Latest Quarterly Report | Download Report

The latest Simons Searchlight report includes updated information on your genetic community and features a special spotlight on the global geographical distribution of families.

Please take our surveys to contribute to this research. If you are not yet registered, consider joining Simons Searchlight to be included in future reports!

View all reports below by clicking on “Previous Quarterly Reports” at the bottom of this page.

What is TRIO-related syndrome?

TRIO-related syndrome happens when there are changes to the TRIO gene. These changes can keep the gene from working as it should.

Key Role

The TRIO gene plays a key role in the basic function of the cell.


Because the TRIO gene is important in the development and function of brain cells, many people who have TRIO-related syndrome have:

  • Intellectual disability
  • Motor and language delays
  • Behavior issues, such as autism

How many people have TRIO-related syndrome?

As of 2020, about 20 people in the world with changes in the TRIO gene had been described in the medical literature. The first case of TRIO-related syndrome was described in 2012. Scientists expect to find more people who have the syndrome as access to genetic testing improves.


Support Resources



GeneReviews are a great resource to bring to your child’s clinicians. These publications provide a summary of current research on genetic conditions and information on ongoing care.

Check out the GeneReviews for TRIO.


Research Article Summary

We currently do not have any article summaries for TRIO, but we add resources to our website as they become available.

The information available about TRIO is limited, and families and doctors share a critical need for more information. As we learn more from children who have this gene change, we expect our list of resources and information to grow.

Full versions of published research articles can be found on PubMed. PubMed is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) online database that is free. It has a collection of both medical and scientific research articles. A PubMed search for TRIO articles can be found here.

You can also visit the Simons Foundation’s SFARI Gene website to see information for researchers about this gene.


Research Opportunities

Simons Searchlight

Help the Simons Searchlight team learn more about TRIO genetic changes by taking part in our research. You can learn more about the project and sign up here.

External Research Opportunity: FaceMatch

FaceMatch is a platform that helps parents and doctors contribute to an international secure image database of both undiagnosed and diagnosed children across the globe. *This study is not affiliated with Simons Searchlight. Learn more about FaceMatch.


Family Stories

Stories from TRIO families:

Click here to share your family’s story!


Previous Quarterly Reports