Below is a summary for the TRIO gene observed in research publications. This is not meant to take the place of medical advice. Click HERE for the full gene guide, which includes more information, such as chance of having another child with this condition, or specialists to consider for people with this condition.

What is TRIO-related syndrome?

TRIO-related syndrome happens when there are changes to the TRIO gene. These changes can keep the gene from working as it should.

Key Role

The TRIO gene plays a key role in the basic function of the cell.


Because the TRIO gene is important in the development and function of brain cells, many people who have TRIO-related syndrome have:

  • Intellectual disability
  • Motor and language delays
  • Behavior issues, such as autism

Do people who have TRIO-related syndrome look different?

People who have TRIO-related syndrome may look different. One study of 10 people found that one-half had a small lower jaw and facial asymmetry, meaning the left half of the face looked different from the right half. Some have short tapered fingers.

How many people have ADNP-related syndrome?

As of 2020, about 20 people in the world with changes in the TRIO gene had been described in the medical literature.


Most have mild intellectual disability.


Many have behavior issues. This can include autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, also called ADHD, repetitive behaviors, obsessive-compulsive behavior, and aggressive behavior.


Most people have a small head, also called microcephaly.


Support Resources



GeneReviews are a great resource to bring to your child’s clinicians. These publications provide a summary of current research on genetic conditions and information on ongoing care.

Check out the GeneReviews for TRIO.


Research Article Summary

We currently do not have any article summaries for TRIO, but we add resources to our website as they become available.

The information available about TRIO is limited, and families and doctors share a critical need for more information. As we learn more from children who have this gene change, we expect our list of resources and information to grow.

Full versions of published research articles can be found on PubMed. PubMed is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) online database that is free. It has a collection of both medical and scientific research articles. A PubMed search for TRIO articles can be found here.

You can also visit the Simons Foundation’s SFARI Gene website to see information for researchers about this gene.


Research Opportunities

Simons Searchlight

Help the Simons Searchlight team learn more about TRIO genetic changes by taking part in our research. You can learn more about the project and sign up here.

External Research Opportunity: FaceMatch

FaceMatch is a platform that helps parents and doctors contribute to an international secure image database of both undiagnosed and diagnosed children across the globe. *This study is not affiliated with Simons Searchlight. Learn more about FaceMatch.


Family Stories

Stories from TRIO families:

Click here to share your family’s story!