Below is a summary for the MAOA gene observed in research publications. This is not meant to take the place of medical advice.

What is Brunner syndrome?

Brunner syndrome happens when there are changes in the MAOA gene. These changes can keep the gene from working as it should.

Key Role

The MAOA protein is important for mitochondria, which are the powerhouse of the cell.


Because the MAOA gene is important for the brain, some people may have:

  • Intellectual disability
  • Learning issues
  • Tremor
  • Disturbed sleep and night terrors
  • Episodic headaches
  • Autism
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD
  • Antisocial behavior
  • Behavior issues and temper tantrums

Brunner syndrome mostly affects males, but some females might have symptoms.

Do people who have Brunner syndrome look different?

Most people who have Brunner syndrome do not look different. Some people might flush, or often look like they are blushing.

How many people have Brunner syndrome?

As of 2022, at least 10 people in the world with Brunner syndrome have been described in medical research.


Support Resources



GeneReviews are a great resource to bring to your child’s clinicians. These publications provide a summary of current research on genetic conditions and information on ongoing care.

There is currently no GeneReviews for MAOA.



Research Article Summaries

We currently do not have any article summaries for MAOA, but we add resources to our website as they become available.

The information available about MAOA is limited, and families and doctors share a critical need for more information. As we learn more from children who have this gene change, we expect our list of resources and information to grow.

Full versions of published research articles can be found on PubMed. PubMed is a National Institutes of Health (NIH) online database that is free. It has a collection of both medical and scientific research articles. A PubMed search for MAOA articles can be found here.


Research Opportunities

Simons Searchlight

Help the Simons Searchlight team learn more about MAOA genetic changes by taking part in our research. You can learn more about the project and sign up here.


Family Stories

We do not currently have any stories from MAOA families.

Click here to share your family’s story!